The central focus of DevOps has been the continuous delivery (CD) pipeline: A single, traceable path for any new or updated version of software to move through lower environments to a higher environment using automated promotion. However, in my recent experience, DevOps is also serving as the bridge between the “expectations chasm” — the gap between the three personas in the above diagram.

Each persona (CIO, Ops and App Teams) have varying expectations for the move to public cloud. For CIO, the motivation to move to the public cloud is based on key selling points — dealing with capacity constraints, mounting on-premises data center costs, reducing the Time to Value (TtV), and increasing innovation. The Ops Team is expecting a tooling maturity on par with on-premises including Capacity Planning, HA, compliance and monitoring. The Apps team is expecting to use the languages, tools, and CI process that they are already using, but in the context of new PaaS services. They also expect the same level of compliance and resilience from the underlying infrastructure services.

Unfortunately, as we will see in a moment, these expectations are hard to meet, despite the rapid innovation and cadence of releases in the cloud.

Consider these examples: Read More…

The recent #AWS and #Azure outages over the past two weeks are a good reminder of how seemingly simple problems (failure of power source or incorrect script parameter) can have a wide impact on application availability.

Look, the cloud debate is largely over and customers (commercial, government agencies, and startups) are moving the majority of their systems to the cloud. These recent outages are not going to slow that momentum down.

That said, all the talk of 3-4-5 9s of availability and financial-backed SLAs has lulled many customers into expecting a utility-grade availability for their cloud-hosted applications out of the box. This expectation is unrealistic given the complexity of the ever-growing moving parts in a connected global infrastructure, dependence on third-party applications, multi-tenancy, commodity hardware, transient faults due to a shared infrastructure, and so on.

Unfortunately, we cannot eliminate such cloud failures. So what can we do to protect our apps from failures? The answer is to conduct a systematic analysis of the different failure modes, and have a recovery action for each failure type. This is exactly the technique (FMEA) that other engineering disciplines (like civil engineering) have used to deal with failure planning. FMEA is a systematic, proactive method for evaluating a process to identify where and how it might fail and to assess the relative impact of different failures, in order to identify the parts of the process that are most in need of change. Read More…

If you want to skip reading the text that follows and simply want to download Visual Studio Code Snippets for Azure API Management policies, click here.

Azure API Management gives you a framework for publishing your APIs in a consistent manner with built-in benefits like developer engagement, business insights, analytics, security, and protection. However, the most powerful capability it offers is the ability to customize behavior of the API itself. Think of the customization as a short program that gets executed just before or after your API is invoked. The short program is simply a collection of statements (called policies in Azure API Management). Examples of policies that come out of the box include format conversion from XML to JSON, applying rate and quota limits and enforcing IP filtering. In addition, you have control flow policies such as choose that is similar to if-then-else, or a switch construct and set-variable that allows you declare a context variable. Finally, you have the ability to write C# (6.0) expressions. Each expression has access to the context variable, as well as, allowed to leverage a subset of .NET Framework types. As you can see, Azure API Management policies offer constructs equivalent to a programming language.

This begs the question, how do you author Azure API Management policies?

Well, today you have two options. Read More…

What is MTConnect?

MTConnect is the communication standard of choice for manufacturing. It allows organized retrieval of data from shop floor equipment in a structured XML.

The adjacent diagram depicts the key components of MTConnect. Let us start with the shop floor equipment shown at the bottom of the diagram – a CNC lathe.  Above that, we have an optional adapter component that converts machine-specific data into a MTConnect defined format. The adapter component is optional as most manufacturers are building this capability directly into their machines.  On the top is the agent component responsible for converting MTConnect data into XML. Additionally the agent also exposes a RESTful service that can be used to retrieve data. Read More…

Transient exception handling and retry logic are considered an important defensive programming practice, especially in the public cloud. But how good is your exception handling? Unfortunately, it’s not always easy to simulate transient exceptions.

Consider the Azure Redis Service for example. It does not have a way to simulate failures. So we decided to create our own Chaos Redis library. Fortunately, Microsoft has developed a Windows port of Redis Cache.

We decided to modify the code so we can inject chaos. Read More…

At a recent holiday dinner, a conversation with a friend eventually progressed to the topics of self-driving cars and facial-recognition software – and the overall roles and capabilities of artificial intelligence (AI). My friend’s assertion was that “AI is ultimately about pattern matching.” In essence, you equip the AI with a library of “patterns” and their corresponding associated actions. Based on the input it receives from the real world, the AI software program will then make an attempt to match the input to a stored pattern and execute the corresponding associated action.

Of course any program, regardless of whether it is designed to steer a car or detect a face in an image, relies on pattern-matching at the lowest level. That said, as we will see shortly, a deep learning-based approach is a fundamentally different way to solve the problem. And it’s an approach that is poised to reinvent computing. Read More…

Companies are adopting Docker containers at a remarkable pace and for a good reason – Docker containers are turning out to be key enablers for a micro-services based architecture.

As a quick recap, Docker containers are:

  • Encapsulated, deployable components that can run as isolated instances
  • Small in size with a fast boot-up time
  • Include tools that enable containerized application images to be easily moved across the public cloud and on-premises
  • Capable of applying limits on physical resources consumed by any given application

Given the popularity of Docker containers, it should come as no surprise that the Azure platform already provides first-class support for a container hosting solution, in the form of Azure Container Service (ACS). ACS makes it simple to create a cluster of Virtual Machines that can run containerized applications. ACS relies on popular open-source tools – with Docker as the container format, and a choice of Marathon, DC/OS, Docker Swarm and Kubernetes for orchestration and scheduling, etc. All this makes it possible to easily run containerized workloads on Azure in a portable manner.

But the Docker containerization story on Azure does not stop here.

It is also being weaved more and more into existing PaaS offerings, including Azure Batch, Azure App Service and Azure Service Fabric. Let’s briefly review the latest developments to see how Docker integrates with Azure PaaS: Read More…

22106868_sYou’re an enterprise. You’ve done your research. You’ve read the whitepapers. You’ve heard all the success stories (along with a few cautionary tales). Perhaps you’ve already taken your first steps into the cloud, but want to embark on a larger-scale public cloud adoption strategy.

But what does that look like for your enterprise? The journey is different for you – for everyone, really. And you certainly don’t want to make it up as you go along.

Here are five important things you need to map out before you start your public cloud journey. We’re confident in this roadmap because we’ve been along for the ride before. We’ve helped many large enterprises and agencies successfully adopt and implement their own unique cloud strategies. Read More…

 By now, DevOps is well-established within web companies, unicorns, and product companies—and especially among companies targeting the cloud. To spare you the lengthy introduction, DevOps brings “development” and “operations” together as a moniker for company-wide collaboration that will improve business agility. The key DevOps traits are:

  • Involving Ops teams in early stages of development
  • Focus on automating all aspects of the IT life cycle
  • Continuous improvement
  • Maturity of self-service model

Enterprise DevOps Challenges

Despite its success within smaller companies, implementing DevOps in large enterprises has proven to be more difficult. Rachael Shannon-Solomon writes in The Wall Street Journal that DevOps is perhaps better suited for startups at the current time than for enterprise IT. Regardless of whether you agree with her article, it does raise some important points related to siloed structures, organizational change and affecting cultural change on a large scale.

The issue is not that enterprises aren’t adopting DevOps (just look at the latest State of DevOps report for evidence to the contrary); it is the unique set of challenges that large enterprises face that make it harder for DevOps to succeed. Let’s take a closer look: Read More…

AIS is proud to announce the release of our Chief Technology Officer Vishwas Lele’s Pluralsight course on Cloud Oriented Programming. This course demonstrates coding techniques to optimize your applications that are targeted to run in the public cloud.

The public cloud is tomorrow’s IT backbone. As cloud vendors introduce new capabilities, the application-building process is undergoing a profound transformation. The cloud is based on key tenets such as global scale, commodity hardware, usage-based billing, scale-out, and automation. But how does the cloud impact what we do as programmers every day? What do we need to do at a program level that aligns us with the aforementioned tenets? This course discusses 9 techniques / tips (organized in three modules) designed to help developers make more effective use of the cloud.

Click here to get started!

Read More…